Improved operational efficiency derived from the application of area navigation techniques has resulted in the development of navigation applications in various regions worldwide and for all phases of flight. These applications could potentially be expanded to provide guidance for ground movement operations Requirements for navigation applications on specific routes or within a specific airspace must be defined in a clear and concise manner. This is to ensure that the flight crew and the air traffic controllers atcos are aware of the on-board RNAV or RNP system capabilities in order to determine whether the performance of the rnav or rnP system is appropriate for the specific airspace requirements RNAV and RNP systems evolved in a manner similar to conventional ground-based routes and procedures. For domestic operations, the initial systems used VOR and dme for estimating their position; for oceanic operations INS were employed.
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Improved operational efficiency derived from the application of area navigation techniques has resulted in the development of navigation applications in various regions worldwide and for all phases of flight. These applications could potentially be expanded to provide guidance for ground movement operations.
Requirements for navigation applications on specific routes or within a specific airspace must be defined in a clear and concise manner. These new systems were developed, evaluated and certified. Airspace and obstacle clearance criteria were developed based on the performance of available equipment; and specifications for requirements were based on available capabilities.
In some cases, it was necessary to identify the individual models of equipment that could be operated within the airspace concerned. Such prescriptive requirements resulted in delays to the introduction of new RNAV and RNP system capabilities and higher costs for maintaining appropriate certification. To avoid such prescriptive specifications of requirements, this manual introduces an alternative method for defining equipage requirements by specifying the performance requirements.
Performance-based Navigation PBN The PBN concept specifies that aircraft RNAV and RNP system performance requirements be defined in terms of the accuracy, integrity, continuity and functionality, which are needed for the proposed operations in the context of a particular airspace concept.
Performance requirements are identified in navigation specifications, which also identify the choice of navigation sensors and equipment that may be used to meet the performance requirements. These navigation specifications are defined at a sufficient level of detail to facilitate global harmonization by providing specific implementation guidance for States and operators.
Under PBN, generic navigation requirements are defined based on operational requirements. Operators then evaluate options in respect of available technology and navigation services, which could allow the requirements to be met. An operator thereby has the opportunity to select a more cost-effective option, rather than a solution being imposed as part of the operational requirements.
Technology can evolve over time without requiring the operation itself to be reviewed, as long as the expected performance is provided by the RNAV or RNP system. As part of the future work of ICAO, it is anticipated that other means for meeting the requirements of the navigation specifications will be evaluated and may be included in the applicable navigation specifications, as appropriate.
Concept and Implementation Guidance PBN offers a number of advantages over the sensor-specific method of developing airspace and obstacle clearance criteria, i. PBN requirements also depend on what reversionary, conventional navigation techniques are available and what degree of redundancy is required to ensure adequate continuity of functions.
During development of the PBN concept, it was recognized that advanced aircraft RNAV and RNP systems are achieving a predictable level of navigation performance accuracy which, together with an appropriate level of functionality, allows for more efficient use of available airspace.
It also takes account of the fact that RNAV and RNP systems have developed over a year period and as a result there are a large variety of systems already implemented. PBN primarily identifies navigation requirements irrespective of the means by which these are met. Purpose and scope This manual identifies the relationship between RNAV and RNP applications and the advantages and limitations of choosing one or the other as the navigation requirement for an airspace concept.
It also aims at providing practical guidance to States, ANSPs and airspace users on how to implement RNAV and RNP applications, and how to ensure that the performance requirements are appropriate for the planned application.
Recognizing that there are many airspace structures based on existing RNAV applications, and conscious of the high cost to operators in meeting different certification and operational approval requirements for each application, this manual supports those responsible for assessing whether an application can use an existing navigation specification for implementation. Where analysis identifies that a new standard is needed, the manual identifies the steps required for the establishment of such a new standard.
It also identifies a means by which, through the auspices of ICAO, unnecessary proliferation of standards can be avoided. PBN terminology Two fundamental aspects of any PBN operation are the requirements set out in the appropriate navigation specification and the NAVAID infrastructure both ground- and space-based allowing the system to operate.
Executive Summary I- v A navigation specification is a set of aircraft and aircrew requirements needed to support a navigation application within a defined airspace concept. The navigation specification defines the performance required by the RNAV or RNP system as well as any functional requirements such as the ability to conduct curved path procedures or to fly parallel offset routes.
The key difference between them is the requirement for on-board performance monitoring and alerting. A navigation specification that includes a requirement for on-board navigation performance monitoring and alerting is referred to as an RNP specification.
One not having such requirements is referred to as an RNAV specification. An area navigation system capable of achieving the performance requirement of an RNP specification is referred to as an RNP system. States and international organizations should take particular note of the Explanation of Terms and to Chapter 1, Part A, of Volume I of this manual. Because specific performance requirements are defined for each navigation specification, an aircraft approved for a particular navigation specification is not automatically approved for any other navigation specification.
RNP 0. RNP 4. Transition strategies Transition to PBN It is expected that all future RNAV applications will identify the navigation requirements through the use of performance specifications rather than defining equipage of specific navigation sensors.
Where operations exist that were defined prior to the publication of this manual, a transition to PBN may not necessarily be undertaken or even be necessary. As such, existing navigation applications that are not performance-based will legitimately continue to exist.
Nevertheless, it is expected that where revisions to the functional and operational requirements are made, the development and publication of the revised specifications should use the process and description established in this manual. Transition to RNP specifications As a result of decisions made in the industry in the s, most modern RNAV and RNP systems provide on-board performance monitoring and alerting; therefore, the navigation specifications developed for use by these systems can be designated as RNP.
Recognizing this, and to avoid operators incurring unnecessary expense, where the airspace requirement does not necessitate the use of an RNP system, many new as well as existing navigation requirements will continue to specify RNAV rather than RNP systems. Concept and Implementation Guidance However, RNP systems provide improvements on the integrity of operation permitting, inter alia, possibly closer route spacing, and can provide sufficient integrity to allow only the RNP systems to be used for navigating in a specific airspace.
The use of RNP systems may therefore offer significant safety, operational and efficiency benefits. While RNAV and RNP applications will co-exist for a number of years, it is expected that there will be a gradual transition to RNP applications as the proportion of aircraft equipped with RNP systems increases and the cost of transition reduces.
DOC 9613 PBN Manual English OACI
Significantly, it is a move from a limited statement of required performance accuracy to the following: The ICAO PBN Manual Doc definition is: Area navigation based on performance requirements for aircraft operating along an ATS route, on an instrument approach procedure or in a designated airspace. Where: Airborne performance requirements are expressed in navigation specifications in terms of accuracy, integrity, continuity and functionality needed for the proposed operation in the context of a particular airspace concept. Within the airspace concept, the availability of GNSS Signal-In-Space SIS or that of some other applicable navigation infrastructure has to be considered in order to enable the navigation application. The Navigation Specification prescribes the performance requirements in terms of accuracy, integrity, continuity for proposed operations in a particular Airspace. The Navigation Specification also describes how these performance requirements are to be achieved i.
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