Main articles: Province of Georgia , Treaty of Paris , and Indian Reserve The conflict between Spain and England over control of Georgia began in earnest in about , when the English colony of South Carolina was founded just north of the missionary provinces of Guale and Mocama , part of Spanish Florida. They were subjected to repeated military invasions by English and Spanish colonists. The English destroyed the Spanish mission system in Georgia by The coast of future Georgia was occupied by British-allied Yamasee American Indians until they were decimated in the Yamasee War of —, by South Carolina colonists and Indian allies. The surviving Yamasee fled to Spanish Florida, leaving the coast of Georgia depopulated, making formation of a new British colony possible. A few defeated Yamasee remained and later became known as the Yamacraw.
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Corresponding Author: Orhan Sezgin; moc. Results The GI Symptom Questionnaire was applied to subjects, and height and body weight were measured in consenting subjects. At least one GI symptom was present in The most common upper GI symptoms were gastric bloating The most common lower GI symptom was abnormal defecation Conclusion This first population-based, cross-sectional cohort study revealed that the prevalence of GIS diseases is critically high for optimal public health.
Special attention must be paid to these diseases while planning health policies and reimbursements. Unfortunately, large-scale population-based studies are lacking in this regard, except for some small-scale studies assessing the prevalence of digestive system diseases and symptoms 1 — 5. However, most of these studies focused on a single disease.
Knowing the prevalence of gastrointestinal diseases in the population is very important to determine the targets that healthcare professionals need to focus on, to use the sources accurately and to guide health policy makers.
Today, the data that we use to guide us are limited to the hospital-based records of documented diseases or small-scale screening and assessment studies. These data are inadequate to draw conclusions for an entire population, but they are enough to provide a rough estimate.
The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome shows variations worldwide 1. Although the prevalence rate for each disease is known partially, a population-based study evaluating the diseases together is lacking.
In addition, given that conducting a study with a sample from whole country is difficult, the cross-sectional choice of a region as representative of the whole country is a method that may lead to generalization of the results.
This study was designed in a population-based sample size representing the whole country to determine the prevalence of the most frequent upper and lower gastrointestinal GI symptoms and potential GIS diseases. These cities have been previously chosen by the Turkish Association of Internal Medicine because of their low immigration rate and geographical closeness to Ankara, the capital of Turkey 8.
Another factor that plays a role in choosing these two cities was that they do not show major economic or social dependency in spite of their closeness to Ankara. The study was announced in the cities by informing the district health directorate, district governorship, and municipality and primary care clinics in each city.
Within this scope, information and invitation leaflets and posters were prepared and delivered and announced at the central points of these cities. The people who agreed to participate in the study after the announcement were invited to the study offices to complete the questionnaires and to have their anthropometric measurements height and weight recorded. The questionnaire was applied by the interviewers via face-to-face interview to the volunteers who visited the study office.
Both upper GI symptoms epigastric pain, heartburn, regurgitation, gastric bloating, sensation of hunger, nausea, vomiting, early satiety, post-prandial fullness, belching, dysphagia, and halitosis and lower GI symptoms abdominal rumbling, abdominal pain, abdominal bloating, and abnormal defecation were inquired into.
The volunteers were asked to report the symptoms they experienced in the last 1 month. For non-normal data distribution, the Mann-Whitney U test was used for paired group comparisons and Kruskal-Wallis test was used for multiple group comparisons.
The remaining refused to participate in the study. Of the subjects to whom the questionnaire was applied, visited the study offices for physical measurements height and weight Figure 1.
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