MA7155 APPLIED PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS NOTES PDF

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This technique can be used on a variety of ferrous and non-ferrous materials, including steel, stainless steel, aluminum, bronze, tungsten carbide, ceramics and plastics. ASTM E Also, there are no universal acceptance criteria e the maximum allowable size of an indication. It should be pointed out, however, that after indications have been produced, they must be interpreted or classified and then evaluated. Advertisement 4 Go to Page 1 2 3 4 Edit Story. The correct term for a discontinuity is an indication, which is not necessarily a crack or a flaw.

Agreement by the user and the supplier regarding specific techniques is strongly recommended. They can be effectively used in the examination of nonporous, metallic materials, both ferrous and nonferrous, and of nonmetallic materials such as glazed or fully densified ceramics, certain nonporous plastics, and glass. Cracks typically show up as red lines and pits usually look like red dots. The liquid penetrant examination just makes the discontinuities easier to see. Link to Active This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.

These inspections can increase the reliability of the part by providing early detection of flaws that could lead to a failure. Liquid penetrant testing Satm penetrant inspection is the most popular method to check for surface cracks because it is simple and no special equipment is required. Non-destructive examination NDE is used to detect cracks and other flaws in a part without rendering the part unusable by performing destructive testing. With this technique, liquid penetrant is applied to the surface of a material and is drawn into surface discontinuities such as cracks, pits and seams by capillary action.

The penetrant that is trapped in any discontinuities will glow when viewed under a black light. Some of the most popular NDE methods include: This is typically done with a special cleaning solvent. SI units are provided for information only. The visible dye penetrant technique involves the following steps: The part then needs to be cleaned to remove the penetrant and the developer. An example of a gear tooth crack that was made more visible using a dye penetrant examination is shown in Figure 1.

After application of the developer, the visual inspection is done with a black light. A common recommendation is to use solvent and not potable water when cleaning stainless steel parts, such as turbine rotors, that will be highly stressed when in service. This might involve axtm, wire brushing, etc. One of the most critical ashm of liquid penetrant testing is interpreting and evaluating the discontinuities.

Care must be taken not to overly clean astj remove the penetrant from the discontinuities. Some equipment manufacturers allow some surface indications, depending on their size and location on a particular part. For this purpose there must asym a separate code or specification or a specific agreement to define the type, size, location, and direction of indications considered acceptable, and those considered unacceptable. Work Item s — proposed revisions of this standard. It is a common misconception to label a discontinuity as a crack.

The purpose of this article e to describe these basic NDE techniques and discuss some of the advantages and disadvantages of the different methods. The reason is that some potable water sources contain chlorine, which can leave a residue on the surface and can lead to cracking in some stainless steels. Then the surface must be allowed to dry.

Non-destructive examination basics Patrick J. This method substitutes fluorescent penetrating oil for the visible dye penetrant. Box Dubuque, IA Phone: Penetrating oils typically contain a red dye and are sprayed or brushed onto the area of the material being tested.

In most cases, the discontinuities are visible to the naked eye without liquid penetrant testing. To avoid this, any indications should be investigated by polishing and re-evaluating the indication. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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