JBEIL BYBLOS PDF

The name thus seems to have meant the "Well of the God" or "Source of the God". During the Crusades , this name appeared in European records as Gibelet and Giblet. This name was used for Byblos Castle and its associated lordship. It is attractive to archaeologists because of the successive layers of debris resulting from centuries of human habitation. According to the writer Philo of Byblos quoting Sanchuniathon, and quoted in Eusebius , Byblos had the reputation of being the oldest city in the world, founded by Cronus. During the 3rd millennium BC, the first signs of a town can be observed, with the remains of well-built houses of uniform size.

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The name thus seems to have meant the "Well of the God" or "Source of the God". During the Crusades , this name appeared in European records as Gibelet and Giblet. This name was used for Byblos Castle and its associated lordship. It is attractive to archaeologists because of the successive layers of debris resulting from centuries of human habitation. According to the writer Philo of Byblos quoting Sanchuniathon, and quoted in Eusebius , Byblos had the reputation of being the oldest city in the world, founded by Cronus.

During the 3rd millennium BC, the first signs of a town can be observed, with the remains of well-built houses of uniform size. This was the period when the Canaanite civilization began to develop.

Neolithic and Chalcolithic levels[ edit ] Jacques Cauvin published studies of flint tools from the stratified Neolithic and Chalcolithic sites in Boynton in with further studies by R. Erich in and Van Liere and Henri de Contenson in It was located on the seaward slope of the larger of the two hills that used to compose ancient Byblos, with a watered valley in between. Dunand discovered around twenty houses although some of the settlement was suggested to have been lost to the sea, robbed or destroyed.

The pottery was more developed with red washes and more varied forms and elaborate decorations, buildings were poorer with unplastered floors. The Late Neolithic period showed development from the middle in building design, a wider range of more developed flint tools and a far larger variety of pottery with fabrication including silica. The Late Chalcolithic featured developments of " Canaanean blades " and fan scrapers. Adult burials in jars started to appear along with metal in the form of one copper hook, found in a jar.

Some jars were lined with white plaster that was applied and self-hardened after firing. First Dynasty tombs used timbers from Byblos. One of the oldest Egyptian words for an oceangoing boat was "Byblos ship".

They also deal with the conquest of neighboring city-states by the Habiru. It appears Egyptian contact peaked during the 19th dynasty , only to decline during the 20th and 21st dynasties. In addition, when the New Kingdom collapsed in the 11th century BC, Byblos ceased being a colony and became the foremost city of Phoenicia. The use of the alphabet was spread by Phoenician merchants through their maritime trade into parts of North Africa and Europe.

One of the most important monuments of this period is the Temple of the Obelisks , dedicated to the Canaanite war god Resheph , but this had fallen into ruins by the time of Alexander the Great. Traditional Lebanese house overlooking the Mediterranean sea, Byblos. This house is within the antiquities complex and illustrates the modern ground level with respect to excavations Ancient history[ edit ] In the Assyrian period, Sibittibaal of Byblos became tributary to Tiglath-Pileser III in BC, and in BC, when Sennacherib conquered all Phoenicia , the king of Byblos was Urumilki.

Byblos was also subject to Assyrian kings Esarhaddon r. Hellenistic rule came with the arrival of Alexander the Great in the area in BC. Coinage was in use, and there is abundant evidence of continued trade with other Mediterranean countries. Ruins at port. During the Greco-Roman period, the temple of Resheph was elaborately rebuilt, and the city, though smaller than its neighbours such as Tyre and Sidon, was a center for the cult of Adonis.

In the 3rd century, a small but impressive theater was constructed. With the rise of Christianity , a bishopric was established in Byblos, and the town grew rapidly. Although a Sasanian colony is known to have been established in the region following the early Muslim conquests of , there is little archaeological evidence for it. Trade with Europe effectively dried up, and it was not until the coming of the First Crusade in that prosperity returned to Byblos, known then as Giblet or Jebail.

John-Mark in Byblos In the 12th and 13th century Byblos became part of the County of Tripoli , a Crusader state connected to, but largely independent from, the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. As Gibelet or Giblet, it came under the rule of the Genoese Embriaco family , who created for themselves the Lordship of Gibelet.

Their residence, the Crusader castle of Gibelet , along with the fortified town, served as an important military base for the Crusaders. The remains of the castle are among the most impressive architectural structures now visible in the town centre. The town was taken by Saladin in , re-taken by the Crusaders, conquered by Baibars in , but it remained in the possession of the Embriacos until around Having voluntarily surrendered to the Mamluks, the city was relatively spared from looting following its capture.

Contemporary history[ edit ] Byblos Historic Quarter Byblos and all of Lebanon was placed under French Mandate from until when Lebanon achieved independence. The Lebanon War negatively affected the ancient city by covering its harbor and town walls with an oil slick that was the result of an oil spill from a nearby power-plant. There is also a minority of Shia Muslims. Byblos has three representatives in the Parliament of Lebanon : two Maronites and one Shia.

The Campus is situated on a hill overlooking the city and the Mediterranean Sea. The city is known for its fish restaurants, open-air bars, and outdoor cafes. Yachts cruise into its harbor today as they did in the s and s when Marlon Brando and Frank Sinatra were regular visitors to the city.

Once it supplied the city with water. The many small obelisks found in this temple were used as religious offerings. The sanctuary contained a large number of human figurines made of bronze covered with gold leaf, which are now displayed in the National Museum of Beirut.

The necropolis dates back to the second millennium BC and contains tombs of the Byblos kings, including King Ahiram. The Roman theater was built around AD Other historic buildings[ edit ].

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Learn how and when to remove this template message The Jbeil District rises from 0 to 2, meters above sea level in the north. Moreover, The District hosts a number of significant sites. The capital Byblos is an important historical and archaeological site boasting Phoenician, Roman, and Crusader ruins. The mountain village of Aannaya hosts the Saint Maroun-Aannaya monastery and the Catholic shrine of Saint Charbel , the first Lebanese saint officially canonized by Pope Paul VI in , both significant religious Maronite Christian holy sites. The village of Laqlouq , which has an altitude of 1, meters to 2, meters, is a ski resort.

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