JoJosida Schenker reports progress on his Kontrapunkt. No trivia or quizzes yet. Published June 1st by Schirmer Books first published Diary entry by Schenker for 9 January Diary entry by Schenker for 6 November heinricy Jonas encloses a translation of an English review of his book; comments despairingly. The German original is available through https: Schenker asks for a copy of his Harmonielehre to be sent to the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde; — He seeks advice regarding Theodor Frimmel and the Beethoven-Jahrbuch, explaining the delay on Kontrapunkt I. The subject matter of the work is species counterpoint. Diary entry by Schenker for 25 August Cotta replied with new financial proposals, in the face of which Schenker realized that he could no longer fall back on Alphons von Rothschild for the publication costs.
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Heinrich Schenker seated, c. His way of hearing music, developed over a forty-five year career, was embodied in a formalized theory and expressed through a sophisticated method of music analysis by way of treatises, monographs, articles, periodicals, and editions that have had an irrevocable influence on the way the world thinks about music.
He was first and foremost a musician. Moreover, his theory and method have been adopted by those examining medieval and renaissance music, and even music that Schenker himself scorned: impressionist and atonal music, jazz, popular music, and music of non-western traditions. The curricula were rigorous in history, social science, and especially in classical languages Latin, Greek , but also required study of Polish and, in the upper grades, German and its literature for students of German-speaking households.
In , at age 16, Schenker graduated first in a class of His elder brother Wilhelm had graduated the same high school a year earlier. Schenker moved to Vienna in , where he studied law at the University of Vienna from that year to He took a comprehensive curriculum of over thirty courses, including jurisprudence, legal history, and methodology, earning his doctorate in He emerged with a legal cast of mind reflected in his juridification and moralization of music as the "life of the tones.
From to he was concurrently enrolled at the Vienna Conservatory of Music, studying harmony and counterpoint with Anton Bruckner, piano with Ernst Ludwig, and composition with Johann Nepomuk Fuchs.
His father, a country doctor, died at the end of , and in order to support his family Heinrich embarked on the activity that would frame his entire career: private piano teaching at home.
Further income came from work as a music critic between and for newpapers and journals in Vienna, Leipzig, and Berlin. But during this time, Schenker saw himself primarily as a composer and pianist, publishing small-scale compositions, which received performances between and , and remaining active as an accompanist and conductor. Bach and later J. For the C. Bach edition he provided a companion guide to executing the ornamentation, but with significant remarks on form and compositional process: Ein Beitrag zur Ornamentik Within the J.
Cotta, , in which work he expounded the central concepts of Stufe harmonic scale-degree and Auskomponierung literally "composing-out," i. It was in Decline of the Art of Composition, planned as an afterword to Harmonielehre, revised —09 as a separate volume in the series but ultimately unpublished, that Schenker first articulated his enduring polemic against the 19th century especially Berlioz and Wagner for sweeping aside the "immutable laws" of composition embodied in German composers of the classical period, whose mastery of cyclic forms found continuity in the music of Mendelssohn and, finally, Brahms.
The second volume of the series, Kontrapunkt, was originally planned as a single volume, but split in order to facilitate publication of the first half-volume "Cantus Firmus and Two-voice Counterpoint" in Cotta , the second "Counterpoint in Three and more Voices; Bridges to Free Composition" being delayed by the war and eventually published in UE.
Harmonielehre and Kontrapunkt had in common that they adopted a "psychological" point of view. Neither was a textbook in the normal sense; each was more a training in how to hear music properly.
Indeed, the original working title for the latter was "Psychologie des Kontrapunkts. Around this time he also mapped out a theory of musical form and he made a first draft of a book entitled Die Kunst des Vortrags The Art of Performance, ; he returned to both from time to time, intending quite late in life to finalize them, but neither was published. Between and , Schenker established working relationships with his two principal publishers: UE and J.
Cotta of Stuttgart. Begun harmoniously, both relationships were at times troubled. The relationship between the two men was complex, admiration and respect mingled with suspicion and exasperation. In his personal life, Schenker became acquainted with Jeaneth Kornfeld, wife of his friend Emil Kornfeld, around A relationship developed over seven years, and in she left her husband to devote herself to helping Schenker in his work.
By late in , she was taking down his extensive diaries in shorthand, and by his lesson notes, writing up fair copies of both in exercise books. She also took letters and wrote up drafts for Heinrich to correct and write fair copies.
The handbook on the Ninth Symphony grew in size, and was published in by UE as an independent monograph, without accompanying score; nevertheless, it established the format for the future: analytical commentary—performance —survey of secondary literature. The notebooks in which Schenker recorded the details of each lesson given in his private piano studio survive from onwards, and these in conjunction with his diaries afford a sense of what his life was like during the academic "season," October to June.
He taught Monday to Saturday inclusive, each lesson of either one hour or two. Students usually attended twice or three times a week, for a total of four, five, or six hours, other students coming once a week, a few on an occasional basis. Serious students took not only piano technique and interpretation but also a year of harmony, at least a year of counterpoint and a year of thoroughbass, plus source studies and editorial technique, and analytical method.
It was a fully integrated music education, unique in its time, designed to train up a new generation of musicians for all walks of musical life in a mode of thought wholly new yet deeply rooted in tradition.
The evening might involve a concert, receiving or visiting friends, otherwise an evening meal at home followed by further study, including dictation to Jeanette, whose work might then go on into the early hours of the morning while he himself also worked late. July to mid-September was spent in the Tyrol mountains or the Salzkammergut, reading, hiking, playing piano, doing conceptual groundwork for future publications, correcting proofs and, on occasion, receiving visits from his keenest pupils.
That for Op. The delaying of Op. He also produced a facsimile edition of the "Moonlight" Sonata in for series edited by Otto Erich Deutsch. Schenker continued to develop his "pocket library" plan throughout the s, renaming it Kleine Bibliothek Little Library ; but by the time it began publication it had mutated into a periodical, Der Tonwille, each of its ten outwardly modest issues offering a fiery admixture of theoretical articles, work analyses, and miscellaneous comment. In practice, the first issue was released within a few days of the Op.
Even so, it was not until November that they were able to unite their two households in an apartment on the Keilgasse, Vienna III. Meanwhile, in Schenker had been diagnosed with diabetes, a condition that affected his day-to- day life and, ultimately, would claim it.
Three yearbooks were produced, dated , , and , all modeled on a typical issue of Tonwille, with theoretical articles, analyses, and miscellany, but with the political polemic subdued.
These two analyses reveal the confidence with which Schenker now operated in the analytical mode, and serve as the two most important full-length exemplars of his method. The graphic techniques begun in Op. November saw a tentative resumption of communications between Schenker and Hertzka. In , Schenker described how, after completion of the "Eroica" Symphony graphs in Meisterwerk 3, the "presentation in graphic form" had been "developed to a point that makes an explanatory text unnecessary.
The works graphed were a J. A second volume was mooted but never materialized. By , it already held over 30, pages, and it continued to grow thereafter. By the early s, Schenker could rightly claim that his theories were being disseminated within Europe by his students and disciples to their pupils. The first to teach his theories in a foreign language and to quote him in an English publication was John Petrie Dunn at the University of Edinburgh, until his tragic death in a road accident in ; the American organist Victor Vaughn Lytle, who had studied with Hans Weisse in the late s, took a theory teaching post at Oberlin College, Ohio.
In September , Weisse left Vienna to take up an appointment as theory and composition teacher at the David Mannes Music School and Columbia University in New York in September , where he attracted a wide circle of admiring pupils and laid the foundations of American Schenker pedagogy. The second half-volume of Kontrapunkt, which had been published in , concluded with the "Bridges to Free Composition.
But by , after publication of Op. For the next ten years he worked on what became the summation of his mature theory, cast into three main parts, "Background," "Middleground," and "Foreground," each explicated systematically as in volumes I and II in sections, chapters, and numbered paragraphs in the manner of an 18th-century treatise.
The "elemental driving force" Urkraft of the entire edifice was the Ursatz—in which Urlinie and Bassbrechung bass arpeggiation unite in counterpoint, representing respectively horizontal and vertical forces, falling and rising lines, and embodying the first tones of the harmonic spectrum.
To the text, Schenker provided a companion volume of musical graphs. Schenker died on January 14, , not having corrected the proofs of Der freie Satz; this was seen through the press by his widow and others.
Soon after his death, his students, his living legacy, most of whom were Jewish, were scattered: many emigrated to the USA and elsewhere, others remained and were deported as was his own wife to the camps. The Schenker Institute established in Vienna a few months after his death was closed down in , as had been a similar institute in Hamburg in
Counterpoint, Book 2
Heinrich Schenker seated, c. His way of hearing music, developed over a forty-five year career, was embodied in a formalized theory and expressed through a sophisticated method of music analysis by way of treatises, monographs, articles, periodicals, and editions that have had an irrevocable influence on the way the world thinks about music. He was first and foremost a musician. Moreover, his theory and method have been adopted by those examining medieval and renaissance music, and even music that Schenker himself scorned: impressionist and atonal music, jazz, popular music, and music of non-western traditions. The curricula were rigorous in history, social science, and especially in classical languages Latin, Greek , but also required study of Polish and, in the upper grades, German and its literature for students of German-speaking households. In , at age 16, Schenker graduated first in a class of
Counterpoint : a species approach based on Schenker's Counterpoint
Vudokasa A pencil note states that on March 26,11 copies were handed over to the Gestapo. Diary entry by Schenker for 22 November Harmony5th ed. Schirmer Books,vol. Schenker asks for a copy of his Harmonielehre to be sent to the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde; — He seeks advice regarding Theodor Frimmel and the Beethoven-Jahrbuch, explaining the delay on Kontrapunkt I.
Fortunately, he kept many of his personal papers including thousands of letters , and maintained a nearly page diary that includes many recollections from his early years. Most of the biographical information we have about Schenker stems from this work. Much of the information in this article stems from that work. His musical instincts must have been discovered at an early age, for he went to Lemberg and studied with Carl Mikuli and then continued his studies in Berezhany. Carl Flesch , also in attendance at the Konservatorium, left a description of Schenker as a student "who seemed half-starved, and who towered far above the rest of us… It was Heinrich Schenker, who later came to enjoy high esteem for his original musical theories and his all-embracing practical and theoretical musicality. The teacher closes his classes in harmony; he closes his classes in counterpoint , finishes them off in his own way; but not even the first step toward art has been taken. His first major opportunity came with Maximilian Harden , editor of Die Zukunft [The Future] who published his earliest writings.
Counterpoint: Book 1
It is divided into two "Books", the first published in , and the second in The subject matter of the work is species counterpoint. Book I is concerned with the construction of the cantus firmus and the rules of counterpoint in two voices, also referred to as "strict counterpoint"; Book II treats the cases of three- and four-voice counterpoint. Schenker thus follows the model of Fux in presenting all of the species in turn before adding additional voices. For Schenker, the study of counterpoint is the study of voice leading ; in particular, contrapuntal theory is separate from and independent of harmonic theory, which is concerned with scale-steps see Harmony. Schenker thus views the rules of strict counterpoint as basic structures underlying the complex voice-leading patterns of free composition, and not necessarily as models to be literally imitated on the actual musical surface.