HALBWACHS MEMOIRE COLLECTIVE PDF

Conceptualization of collective memory[ edit ] Attributes of collective memory[ edit ] Collective memory has been conceptualized in several ways and proposed to have certain attributes. For instance, collective memory can refer to a shared body of knowledge e. A goal of history broadly is to provide a comprehensive, accurate, and unbiased portrayal of past events. This often includes the representation and comparison of multiple perspectives and the integration of these perspectives and details to provide a complete and accurate account. In contrast, collective memory focuses on a single perspective, for instance, the perspective of one social group, nation, or community. Consequently, collective memory represents past events as associated with the values, narratives and biases specific to that group.

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Conceptualization of collective memory[ edit ] Attributes of collective memory[ edit ] Collective memory has been conceptualized in several ways and proposed to have certain attributes. For instance, collective memory can refer to a shared body of knowledge e. A goal of history broadly is to provide a comprehensive, accurate, and unbiased portrayal of past events.

This often includes the representation and comparison of multiple perspectives and the integration of these perspectives and details to provide a complete and accurate account. In contrast, collective memory focuses on a single perspective, for instance, the perspective of one social group, nation, or community.

Consequently, collective memory represents past events as associated with the values, narratives and biases specific to that group. In one study where American and Russian students were instructed to recall significant events from World War II and these lists of events were compared, the majority of events recalled by the American and Russian students were not shared. James E. This form of memory is similar to the exchanges in an oral culture or the memories collected and made collective through oral history.

As another subform of collective memories Assmann mentions forms detached from the everyday, it can be particular materialized and fixed points as, e. In practice, the construction of a completely collective memory is at best an aspiration of politicians, which is never entirely fulfilled and is always subject to contestations. Common approaches taken in psychology to study collective memory have included investigating the cognitive mechanisms involved in the formation and transmission of collective memory; and comparing the social representations of history between social groups.

Developing social identity and evaluating the past in order to prevent past patterns of conflict and errors are proposed functions of why groups form social representations of history.

This research has focused on surveying different groups or comparing differences in recollections of historical events, such as the examples given earlier when comparing history and collective memory. Below are some mechanisms involved during when groups of individuals recall collaboratively. During the encoding of information, individuals form their own idiosyncratic organization of the information. This organization is later used when trying to recall the information.

In a group setting as members exchange information, the information recalled by group members disrupts the idiosyncratic organization one had developed. Working alone initially prior to collaboration seems to be the optimal way to increase memory. Early speculations about collaborative inhibition have included explanations, such as diminished personal accountability, social loafing and the diffusion of responsibility, however retrieval disruption remains the leading explanation.

Studies have found that collective inhibition to sources other than social loafing, as offering a monetary incentive have been evidenced to fail to produce an increase in memory for groups. This phenomenon results in enhanced recall. Error pruning[ edit ] Compared to recalling individually, group members can provide opportunities for error prune during recall to detect errors that would otherwise be uncorrected by an individual.

Social contagion errors[ edit ] Group settings can also provide opportunities to exposure of erroneous information that may be mistaken to be correct or previously studied. Re-exposure effects[ edit ] Listening to group members recall the previously encoded information can enhance memory as it provides a second exposure opportunity to the information. Selective forgetting has been suggested to be a critical mechanism involved in the formation of collective memories and what details are ultimately included and excluded by group members.

This mechanism has been studied using the socially-shared retrieval induced forgetting paradigm, a variation of the retrieval induced forgetting method with individuals.

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Maurice Halbwachs

There he studied philosophy with Henri Bergson , who had a big influence on his thought. Initially, when first meeting Durkheim, Halbwachs was looking for advice on how to move from his previous focus on Philosophy to Sociology. Halbwachs also began to focus on scientific objectivism rather than his Bergsonian Individualism. In he returned to Germany to study Marxism and economics in Berlin. He also had a son, Pierre Halbwachs, who influenced Deleuze in the s.

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