Fukuoka harvests between 18 and 22 bushels 1, to 1, pounds of rice per quarter acre. This yield is approximately the same as is produced by either the chemical or the traditional method in his area. This page says Japan always had on average tons per hectar since the 60s. We have to convert from acre to hectar, one acre is 0. But is it a useful method? The book is nearly 30 years old yet nobody seems to have taken up his methods.
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He continued to farm and give lectures until just a few years before his death. He had been in poor health since October , and in August of he asked his doctor to discontinue treatment.
He passed away peacefully at his home a week later during the Obon festival. It is when the ancestors come back to earth for three days to visit the living.
It is a happy time. Villagers tend to the graves, families relax, visit and reminisce as children play together in the summer sun. On the evening of the third night the ancestors go back with a sendoff of songs and fireworks. Fukuoka-sensei died on the third day of Obon. The following biography is excerpted from the award presentation on August 31, in Manila, Philippines: Masanobu Fukuoka was born on the Japanese island of Shikoku on 2 February Iyo, his birthplace, is a small town on the west coast, sixteen miles from the city of Matsuyama.
His family had been settled there for hundreds of years. These orchards, combined with extensive rice lands below, made Kameichi the largest landowner in the area. Kameichi was an educated man, having completed eight years of schooling, which was exceptional for his day.
Repeatedly the local leaders selected him mayor. She was gentle, whereas his father was strict and permitted no luxuries in the household. Even so, Fukuoka remembers a childhood of ease. Tenants tilled the family rice lands. As the second child of six and eldest son, his only chore was to gather wood after school each day. The family was Buddhist but was tolerant toward Christianity, which had penetrated the Iyo region long before; as a boy Fukuoka was accustomed to seeing Christian symbols incorporated into household Shinto shrines.
Years later, he would send two of his daughters to missionary schools. He claims to have been an inferior student who infuriated his teachers. Although lessons did not interest him, the boy was impressed by the advice of his literature teacher who urged each student to make five fast friends during his lifetime so that there would be five people to weep for him when he died. As it was expected that Fukuoka would inherit the family farm, his father sent him for higher education to Gifu Agricultural College, near Nagoya, on the main island of Honshu.
Gifu was a three-year state college where students learned modern techniques for largescale farming. However, a feeling of impending crisis swept the school in when Japan annexed Manchuria. Fukuoka and his fellow students detested the intensified military training they were now obliged to undergo. As jobs were scarce when Fukuoka graduated in , Hiura persuaded him to continue his research at Okayama Prefecture Agricultural Experiment Station.
In his third year at Yokohama, however, he was struck down by acute pneumonia, or incipient tuberculosis. Hospitalized, he was subjected to wintry-cold air as part of his treatment. His friends avoided him, fearing contagion. Even the nurses fled after taking his temperature because the room was so cold. Sick and lonely, Fukuoka feared for his life.
He was twenty-five. When he finally recovered and returned to work, Fukuoka remained distracted by his harrowing brush with death and he began brooding obsessively about life and what it was meant to be. One night during a long solitary walk on the hill overlooking Yokohama he approached the edge of a cliff. Looking down, he wondered what would happen if he fell from the cliff and died. Surely his mother would cry for him, but who else?
Overcome by realization of his failure to acquire five true friends, he collapsed into a deep sleep at the foot of an elm tree. He awoke at dawn to the cry of a heron. He watched the sun break through the morning mist. Birds sang. The next day quit his job and set off gaily on an aimless journey.
He wandered the sea, to Tokyo, to Osaka, Kobe, and Kyoto, and finally to the southern island of Kyushu. Convinced that everything should be allowed to take its natural course, Fukuoka left the meticulously pruned fruit trees to nature. He then watched as insects attacked, branches interlocked, and orchard began withering away. He moved to remote Kochi, on the other side of Shikoku Island, a remained there for the next five years.
At Kochi, Fukuoka and his colleagues were expected to increase wartime food production, especially through advances in scientific agriculture. On his own, however, he conducted comparative studies. He compared yields from intensively cultivated crops enhanced with compost and chemical fertilizers and pesticides those achieved from crops grown without chemical additives. His conclusion was that the use of fertilizers and pesticides was not really necessary.
Although these additives resulted in a marginally higher yield, the value of the yield did not exceed the cost of achieving. Thus, at Kochi Fukuoka established to his satisfaction the superiority of natural farming over farming with chemical aids. During holidays from the research station, Fukuoka visited his family in Iyo. On one of these visits in the winter of , a local matchmaker introduced him to six young women, one of whom, Ayako Higuchi, pleased him and agreed to be his wife.
They were married in the spring. The first of their five children, daughter Masumi, was born the following year, to be followed in due course by a son, Masato, and three more daughters, Mizue, Mariko, and Misora. At Kochi, far from home and the battlefields, Fukuoka philosophically pondered the problems of war and peace.
At one point, he drafted his ideas in a letter to the president of the United States. He cannot remember whether he mailed it. In the tradition of Zen Buddhism, he believes that love and hate are two sides of the same coin, both are qualities of man alone, and both are but clouds of illusion. Fukuoka was finally conscripted in the last desperate months of the war. His duty, from May until August , was helping build mountain redoubts to prepare for the defense of his island homeland.
That is the most horrible part of the war. The first months of the Allied Occupation of Japan were traumatic. But because land reform applied only to rice lands, the citrus orchards in the hills were still theirs. Here, Fukuoka once more took up his pursuit of a way of farming fully integrated with nature. What he had learned from his earlier farming experience was that no area, once cultivated, was natural. Orchards were quite unnatural.
And trees accustomed to pruning would not fruit well with the sudden withdrawal of pruning care. His task? To create a food-producing environment that diverged as little possible from what he considered a natural one. He scattered fruit, vegetable and tree seeds randomly and watched as some of them rooted a thrived while others died. Cypress, cedar, and orange trees grow best in the rich soil of his orchard; cherries, peaches, pears, and plums in the thinner soil. Proceeding by trial and error, he farmed the land passively.
As a more natural ecology was re-established, the less he did, the better the land respond This is why his Four Principles of Natural Farming, as he eventually summarized his experience, compose a list of things not to do.
There is no need for man to do what roots, worms, and micro-organisms do better. Furthermore, plowing the soil alters the natural environment and promotes the growth of weeds. Therefore, his first principle is: No plowing or turning of the soil. Fertility depletion occurs only when the original growth is eliminated in favor of soil-exhausting food crops or grasses to feed cattle.
Adding chemical fertilizers helps the growing crop but not the soil, which continues to deteriorate. Even compost and chicken dung cannot improve on nature, he concluded; moreover, chicken dung can cause the disease rice blast.
Instead he promotes cover crops like clover and alfalfa which natural fertilizers. Yet Fukuoka observed that when he ceased plowing, his weed population declined sharply.
This occurred because plowing actually stirs deep-lying weed seeds and gives them a chance to sprout. Tillage therefore not the answer to weeds. There is a simpler way. To begin with, weeds need not be wholly eliminated; they can be successfully suppressed by spreading straw over freshly sown ground and by planting ground cover.
Eliminating intervals between one crop and another through carefully timed seeding is essential. Furthermore, insect infestations and diseases attack the weakest plants, leaving the strong to fruit more abundantly.
A blight-reduced rice field, he says, may actually yield larger quantities of grain than one left untouched. Although chemical solutions can be effective against pests and plant diseases in the short run, in the long run they are hazardous. Wholly aside from the pollution they leave behind, they permit weak, chemical-dependent plants to survive.
Left to itself, nature prefers hardier stock. Thus Fukuoka evolved his techniques for natural farming by the process of elimination. Along the way he also abandoned the water-filled paddy field and stopped planting seeds beneath the ground in tidy rows. He stopped chopping up straw and laying it neatly upon the fields as most Japanese farmers were wont to do. Straw worked best, he found, if it is scattered whole upon the ground.
In these ways, Fukuoka abandoned the artful tidiness of traditional Japanese farms and the regimentation of modern ones, in favor of the unkempt exuberance of natural growth. In the fall, as his rice plants reach maturity, Fukuoka scatters seeds among the browning stalks: winter grain rye, barley, or wheat , white clover, and rice.
Masanobu fukuoka one straw revolution pdf
He studied plant pathology and spent several years working as a customs inspector in Yokohama. While working there, at the age of 25, he had an inspiration that changed his life. He decided to quit his job, return to his home village and put his ideas into practice by applying them to agriculture. Over the next 65 years he worked to develop a system of natural farming that demonstrated the insight he was given as a young man, believing that it could be of great benefit to the world. He did not plow his fields, used no agricultural chemicals or prepared fertilizers, did not flood his rice fields as farmers have done in Asia for centuries, and yet his yields equaled or surpassed the most productive farms in Japan. This book has been translated into more than 25 languages and has helped make Mr. Fukuoka a leader in the worldwide sustainable agriculture movement.
Masanobu fukuoka one straw revolution pdf masanobu fukuoka masanobu fukuoka forum at permies masanobu fukuoka masanobu fukuoka forum at permies. Masanobu Fukuoka WikiVisually masanobu fukuoka masanobu fukuoka forum at permies. I got the impression he was pretty much done with all that silliness by the time Larry would have arrived. In this book, Fukuoka described his philosophy of natural farming and why he came to farm the way he did.. In this book, Fukuoka described his philosophy of natural farming and why he came to farm the way he did. Fukuoka visited India many times and found the culture, tradition and nature ideal for his deep understanding of natural farming and natural life. Firearm blueing and browning pdf Ste-Rose-de-Prescott These early methods of gun bluing required hours of patient rubbing and scrubbing, rusting and burnishing, to get a fin- ish that would be durable and yet attractive.
The One-Straw Revolution
Life[ edit ] Fukuoka was born on 2 February in Iyo, Ehime , Japan, the second son of Kameichi Fukuoka, an educated and wealthy land owner and local leader. He attended Gifu Prefecture Agricultural College and trained as a microbiologist and agricultural scientist , beginning a career as a research scientist specialising in plant pathology. He worked at the Plant Inspection Division of the Yokohama Customs Bureau in as an agricultural customs inspector. In he was hospitalised with pneumonia , and while recovering, he stated that he had a profound spiritual experience that transformed his world view    and led him to doubt the practices of modern "Western" agricultural science. Among other practices, he abandoned pruning an area of citrus trees, which caused the trees to become affected by insects and the branches to become entangled. He stated that the experience taught him the difference between nature and non-intervention. After World War II , his father lost most of the family lands in postwar land reform and was left with three-eighths of an acre of rice land and the hillside citrus orchards his son had taken over before the war.