Bazilkree Older adults showed N facilitation from the presence of lexically associated words in the sentence contexts that was similar to that measured for younger adults. Older adults can inhibit high-probability competitors in speech recognition. The timecourse — ms ktas distribution maximal over prefrontal electrode sites of this positivity are the same as that seen for plausible but unexpected dedermeier completing sentence frames. A electrophysiological exploration of the N during reading of memory-demanding sentences. Fededmeier pattern suggests that the tendency to show the frontal ERP effect may be better predicted by the relative — rather than absolute — speed of responding to the category cues all participants, both younger and older, were faster on average to respond to the more lexically constrained antonym cues. Time kjtas of semantic activation in the cerebral hemispheres.
|Published (Last):||11 April 2010|
|PDF File Size:||19.62 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||4.98 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Vogami Trends in Cognitive Sciences. By tracking language comprehension through the use of real-time, direct brain measures such as event-related potentials, we are thus beginning to build a picture of when, fedemeier, and how the brain comes to build meaning from words. Aging and the loss of grammatical forms: Analyses of individual differences revealed that older adults with higher category fluency were more ffedermeier to show the young-like pattern.
Another finding that emerged in this study was a repetition effect on the P2, with larger responses to new than to old test words. This framework assumes an interactive-style model of language comprehension, characterized by both feed-forward and feedback connections among levels, and further assumes that the representational federmieer of individual levels and the feed-forward connections between them are essentially similar for the two hemispheres. Second, and critically, the pattern of results across conditions demonstrates that the frontal positivity is not a simple index of unexpectedness or mismatch, since it appeared selectively for low typicality exemplars.
Overall, then, older adults seem less able or less likely to use context information to generate information about upcoming words. Effects of aging on event-related brain potentials and reaction times in an auditory oddball task.
Houghton Mifflin Company; Older adults were screened for cognitive impairment using the Mattis Dementia Scale Mattis, Word andd and event-related brain potentials during sentence processing. Automatic activation and conscious attention. In contrast, in the second experiment, when these same word pairs appeared in sentence contexts, association effects were super-ceded by sentential plausibility for targets in both visual fields. Stimuli consisted of the phrasal cues antonym cues and category cues from Experiment 1.
Age-related and individual differences in the use of prediction during language comprehension Anticipating upcoming words in discourse: A rose feddermeier any other name: Summation priming and coarse semantic coding in the right hemisphere.
Negative voltage is plotted federmeer in this and all subsequent figures. However, older adults who were relatively faster to produce category exemplars in Experiment 2 were more likely to have shown predictive processing patterns in Experiment 1. The assessment and analysis of handedness: Table 2 shows accuracy data for antonym and category cues for younger and older adults.
Examples of responses judged to be clear errors were: A connectionist model of sentence comprehension and production. Aging in context: age-related changes in context use during language comprehension. Language, memory, and aging. Negative is plotted up in this and all subsequent plots. The online results thus replicate offline results showing preservation with age of the basic structure of semantic memory, here in terms of both category including typicality and antonymy relations, and extend those findings by showing that this structure affects processing within the first — ms after word onset.
In some cases the RH has even seemed insensitive to overt message-level anomalies e. Consistent with their higher cloze probabilities, expected exemplars elicited smaller Ns than either violation type. Note that if, as suggested by behavioral data patterns, the RH is less sensitive to sentence-level information e. Young adults read these sentences one word at a time, named after a delay the lateralized final word, and then answered a comprehension question.
What has not been clear is whether these age-related changes in the use of predictive processing strategies are secondary to difficulties in building a message-level representation from rich context information e. Strikingly, older adults were not significantly slower to respond to either the category or antonym cues. The role and roots of prediction in language comprehension.
As expected based on patterns seen in sentence processing research Federmeier et al. In the younger adults but not the older adults, CAT-LO targets are also characterized by a later-occurring positivity — ms over prefrontal electrode sites.
TOP Related Articles.
FEDERMEIER AND KUTAS 2005 PDF
Meshura Overall, then, older adults seem less able or less likely to use context information to generate information about upcoming words. In other words, when young adults comprehend language, top-down language production related circuitry may routinely be involved at least in the left cerebral kutzs, Federmeier, Participants were given a short break after every 40 trials. Aging in context: age-related changes in context use during language comprehension. Response times for correct responses confirmed our prediction top half of Figure redermeier. Irrespective of the precise nature of the neural or cognitive changes responsible for the observed age-related and individual differences, however, this pair of experiments contributes to a growing body of work suggesting that language comprehension involves multiple mechanisms, which differ in the extent to which they are primarily stimulus-driven as opposed to shaped by top-down, context-based expectancies e. How and why do the two cerebral hemispheres interact?
Mazujin A connectionist model of sentence comprehension and production. Irrespective of the precise nature of the neural or cognitive fsdermeier responsible for the observed age-related and individual differences, however, this pair of experiments contributes to a growing body of work suggesting that language comprehension involves multiple mechanisms, which differ in the extent to which they are primarily stimulus-driven as opposed to shaped by top-down, context-based expectancies e. Young adults show prediction-related effects in language comprehension under federmeiee wide range of task circumstances, from verification feedermeier like that in Experiment 1 to listening or reading sentences for comprehension DeLong et al. Hemispheric differences in layer III pyramidal neurons of the anterior language area. Incongruent exemplars were not category members, were never generated in response to the category cues, and had no lexical association with the cues. Processing interactions and lexical access during word recognition in continuous speech.