Papyrus Oxyrhynchus , a second-century manuscript of De Corona; Papyrus Oxyrhynchus , a second- or third-century manuscript of De Corona. Authorship[ edit ] The authorship of many of the works attributed to Demosthenes have been disputed. Most of the speeches given by Apollodoros , for instance, are widely considered to have been written by Apollodoros himself, though the first speech Against Stephanos has been considered authentic by many scholars. The third speech Against Aphobos , for instance, is now generally accepted to be authentic. The Third Philippic , for instance, contains text which does not appear in all of the manuscript traditions; it has been suggested that this was a later addition by another writer. This is number 12, the Epistle of Philip, which claims to be the letter from Philip of Macedon to the people of Athens to which Demosthenes 11, the Reply to Philip , is a response.
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Fourth Philippic Current location in this text. Enter a Perseus citation to go to another section or work. Full search options are on the right side and top of the page. If the question before us were a new one, men of Athens , I should have waited until most of the regular speakers had delivered their opinions, and if satisfied with any of their proposals, I should have remained silent, but if not satisfied, I should then have tried to express my own views.
Since, however, it is our fortune to be still debating a point on which they have often spoken before, I can safely claim your indulgence if I am the first to rise and address you. For if in the past their advice had been sound, there would be no need for deliberation today.
Demosthenes with an English translation by J. Vince, M. Purchase a copy of this text not necessarily the same edition from Amazon. An XML version of this text is available for download, with the additional restriction that you offer Perseus any modifications you make. Perseus provides credit for all accepted changes, storing new additions in a versioning system.
The Public Orations of Demosthenes/Philippic I
His strong desire to sue his guardian, Aphobus, in the courts, coupled with a delicate physique that prevented him from receiving the customary Greek gymnastic education, led him to train himself as an orator. He also studied legal rhetoric. In his Parallel Lives Plutarch , the Greek historian and biographer, relates that Demosthenes built an underground study where he exercised his voice, shaving one half of his head so that he could not go out in public. He also practiced speaking before a large mirror.
Introduction[ edit ] Philip became King of Macedonia in B. Being in great difficulties both from external enemies and from internal division, he made peace with the Athenians, who were supporting the pretensions of Argaeus to the throne, in the hope of recovering by agreement with Argaeus the colony of Amphipolis on the Strymon, which they had lost in Philip acknowledged the title of Athens to Amphipolis, and sent home the Athenian prisoners, whom he had captured among the supporters of Argaeus, without ransom. The Athenians, however, neglected to garrison Amphipolis. In the year in which Athens temporarily recovered her hold over Euboea, by compelling the Thebans to evacuate the island , Philip carried on a successful campaign against the Paeonian and Illyrian tribes, who were standing enemies of Macedonia. For the next three years Athens was kept occupied by the war with her allies, and Philip saw his opportunity. He besieged Amphipolis: when the citizens sent Hierax and Stratocles to ask Athens for help, he dispatched a letter promising the Athenians that he would give them Amphipolis when he had taken it; and a secret understanding was arrived at between Philip and the Athenian envoys sent to him, that Athens should give him Pydna once a Macedonian town, but now an ally of Athens in exchange.
Works of Demosthenes
Early years and personal life[ edit ] Family and personal life[ edit ] Bust of Demosthenes British Museum , London , Roman copy of a Greek original sculpted by Polyeuktos. Although his father provided for him well, his legal guardians, Aphobus, Demophon and Therippides, mishandled his inheritance. In Parallel Lives, Plutarch states that Demosthenes built an underground study where he practised speaking and shaving one half of his head so that he could not go out in public. Plutarch also states that he had "an inarticulate and stammering pronunciation " that he got rid of by speaking with pebbles in his mouth and by repeating verses when running or out of breath. He also practised speaking in front of a large mirror. According to Demosthenes, the account revealed the misappropriation of his property.