Controversialist and publicist, born at Villeneuve de Berg Ardeche ; 2 October, ; died at Paris , 5 October, He entered the Society of Jesus in and taught grammar at Toulouse in The storm against the Jesuits in France drove him from his country and he was occupied in college work in Moravia and Bohemia until the suppression of the order in He then returned to France and his first literary work appeared in "Ode sur glorieux avenement de Louis Auguste au trone". His first important work was "Les Helveiennes, ou Lettres Provinciales philosophiques" Amsterdam,
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Controversialist and publicist, born at Villeneuve de Berg Ardeche ; 2 October, ; died at Paris , 5 October, He entered the Society of Jesus in and taught grammar at Toulouse in The storm against the Jesuits in France drove him from his country and he was occupied in college work in Moravia and Bohemia until the suppression of the order in He then returned to France and his first literary work appeared in "Ode sur glorieux avenement de Louis Auguste au trone".
His first important work was "Les Helveiennes, ou Lettres Provinciales philosophiques" Amsterdam, The seventh edition of the work Paris, contains a sketch of the author. Of these letters, the seventy-sixth is considered most brilliant. His book provoked a controversy with M. Giraud-Soulavie, and the replies and counter-replies were many. In the meantime, national affairs in France were growing more and more turbulent, but Barruel continued his literary activity, which from now on occupied itself specially with public questions.
In appeared "Lettres sur le Divorce", a refutation of a book by Hennet. From to he edited the famous "Journal Ecclesiastique" founded by Dinouart in He likewise wrote a number of pamphlets against the civil oath demanded from ecclesiastics and against the new civil constitution during and The ninth volume of this collection was published in The storm of the French Revolution had in the meantime forced Barruel to seek refuge in England , where he became almoner to the refugee Prince de Conti.
He dedicated the work to the English nation in recognition of the hospitality it had shown toward the unfortunate French ecclesiastics. The English version went through several editions and did much to strengthen the British nation in its opposition to French revolutionary principles.
An American edition of the work appeared at Burlington in Robert Clifford" London, in four volumes. This important work is an endeavor to account for the French Revolution by a study of the anti-Christian and anti-social principles of the secret societies and the encyclopedic philosophers. Owing to its translation into every modern language it was everywhere read and commented upon.
A sharp criticism in the "Monthly Review" brought forth a reply from Barruel who greatly increased the circulation of his book by issuing an abridgement of it in The Freemasons of France , Germany , and England angrily contested his assertions and a voluminous literature was the consequence. Barruel, indeed, seems to have been the first to portray clearly the necessary consequences to civil government, to the Church , and to the social order that must result from the atheistic oathbound associations that had acquired such tremendous power on the continent of Europe.
On the fall of the Directory in , Barruel was enabled to return to France. He fully accepted and persuaded many other clergymen to accept the new political order of things in his native country and he wrote several books to defend his opinions. His last important controversy was his defense of the Holy See in its deposition of the French bishops , which had been necessitated by the new order of things in France , established by the Concordat. His book appeared also in English: "The Papal Power, or an historical essay on the temporal power of the Pope" London, Many attacked the work, but as usual the author did not suffer an antagonist to go unanswered.
His new work involved him in a very extended controversy, for his work was translated into all the principal European languages. His friends and foes alike became involved in a wordy war. Blanchard published in London no less than three refutations. The many articles Barruel contributed to journals and his many published letters are not touched on here. In regard to the latter work, Barruel stated his object would be to defend the Church against the reproach of having deposed kings and having freed their subjects from the oath of allegiance.
He contended that objections on this score arose only from an ignorance of history. During the whole course of a life of multiplied activity, Barruel was ever the wakeful apologist and unwearied defender of Christian truth and the rights of the Church. At the time of his death, he was engaged on a refutation of the philosophical system of Kant , but never completed his work.
Sources Sommervogel, Bibl. About this page APA citation. Fanning, W. Augustin Barruel. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Fanning, William. New York: Robert Appleton Company, This article was transcribed for New Advent by M. Ecclesiastical approbation. Nihil Obstat. Remy Lafort, S. Farley, Archbishop of New York. Contact information. The editor of New Advent is Kevin Knight.
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Barruel Memoirs Illustrating The History Of Jacobinism
It was written and published in French in , and translated into English in In the book, Barruel claims that the French Revolution was the result of a deliberate conspiracy or plot to overthrow the throne, altar and aristocratic society in Europe. The plot was allegedly hatched by a coalition of philosophes , Freemasons. The conspirators created a system that was inherited by the Jacobins who operated it to its greatest potential. The Memoirs purports to expose the Revolution as the culmination of a long history of subversion. Barruel was not the first to make these charges but he was the first to present them in a fully developed historical context and his evidence was on a quite unprecedented scale.
Petersburg, Dublin, Naples and Rome before the fall of Napoleon. Their commitment to liberty and equality were really commitments of "pride and revolt". They began with an attack on the Church where a "subterranean warfare of illusion, error, and darkness waged by the Sect"  attempted to destroy Christianity. The influence of the philosophes could not be underrated according to Barruel.